“I hope that when you are in charge, you will do better than my generation has.”

“Disdain mediocrity and aim to excel in whatever you do. I hope you will love your work as I love doing astronomy. I hope that you will fight injustice and discrimination in all its guises. I hope you will value diversity among your friends, among your colleagues, and, unlike some of your regents, among the student body population. I hope that when you are in charge, you will do better than my generation has. In 1993, US universities awarded PhD degrees in physics and astronomy to a total of nine black Americans. You do better.”

— Vera Rubin, (1928-2016), astronomer, scientist, author, from a commencement speech addressing the graduating class of University of California, Berkeley in 1996

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